Mixing what ingredient with what phase

Mixing What Ingredient With What Phase

So far, we have discussed a lot when it comes to creating your lovely home-made skincare products.

Yesterday, we looked at heating and holding ingredients, which you can read all about here.

You can also read the following steps here in creating simple skincare lotions.

For the purpose of today’s article, we want to look at the percentages of different ingredients, and at what phase they need to be added.

Ingredients to include within a formula

Allantoin: Use in the heated water phase; this will help to increase the solubility of allantoin.

You can add it to the oil phase, but it won’t dissolve correctly and will feel gritty.

Allantoin can recrystallize (glass shards) at above 0.5% so are best added at no more than 0.5%

Cocoa Butter: Add to the heated oil phase.

If you want to add occlusion to your product without making it too thick, add up to 2% dimethicone.

Percentage: Use up to 5 – 10% depending on how hard you want your formula.

Cyclomethicone: This ingredient is volatile, so for safety, should be added to the cool-down phase. Ensure you stir regularly to emulsify.

Percentage: You can use anywhere between 1 to 100% in your formulae.

DMAE: Water-soluble, add to the cool-down phase.

Percentage: 1% to 3%; any higher and it can destabilise a lotion.

Dimethicone: Best added in the heated oil phase (they can withstand temperatures of 70-75°C) for a more stable emulsion (smaller micelles).

Percentage: Add up to 5%

D. Panthenol: The powdered form of panthenol should be added to the water phase.

However, it is more soluble in its sodium form. The liquid form should be added to the cool-down phase.

Percentage: 1 to 5%

Dri Silc/Silica: Add at the point when you combine the oil and water phase, as it is oi-soluble and needs to be fully dispersed and saturated.

Ideally, silica is best used if you have a homogenizer.

Percentage: 2 to 10%

Dry Flo/Modified Corn Starch Add to the heated water or oil phase but add to a cup first. Blend and then add to your formula or it will go really lumpy.

Percentage: 0.5 to 1%

Extracts: These have a boiling point, so add to the water phase once cooled down.

Percentages will vary depending on the extract.

Guar Gum or Guar Conditioner: This product must be hydrated well ahead of time. in a portion of room-temperature water taken from your recipe.

Mix really well with a hand mixer; you can hand-blend, but be careful as you don’t want to create too many bubbles.

Next, allow to stand for at least 10 to 15 minutes or until it is well hydrated. At this stage, it will form a gel consistency.

Basically, guar gum needs to disperse effectively before you add it to the rest of the water phase.

Once complete, you can continue with the heating and holding phase of all your water ingredients including the guar gum.

Percentage: 0.2 to 5%

Glycerine: It is a very heat-resistant product, and be warned – it can make a formula very sticky!

Percentage: 3-5%. Be careful, as it can make your formulas tacky.

Honeyquat: Add to the cool-down phase.

Percentage: Use up to 5%

Hyaluronic acid: Add to the water phase.

Percentage: 0.05%

IPM: Add to the heated water phase.

Percentage: Use up to 5%

Niacinamide: It doesn’t need pre-dissolving— just put it in the heated water phase.

Percentage: Use up to 2%

Sodium PCA: Add to the heated water phase.

Percentage: Use up to 2%

Vitamin E: It is best added in the heated oil phase, Vitamin E can withstand temp 70-75°C) for a more stable emulsion.

Notes

If you are leaving out essential oils or fragrance, increase the water phase; be careful when adding clay to a formula, as it absorbs water.

Well, now we have got the terminology and really technical stuff out the way,

Join us tomorrow when we look at how to make cream, and what you will need to get you started.

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